Monthly Archives: July 2018

Gawler’s Hidden Secrets: Goose Island

Gawler’s Hidden Secrets: Goose Island



  Once known as Duck Flat, Gawler’s Goose Island is little known outside of the town.
At the end of 8th street, which was known as Water Street, sits the parkland which was once home to Chinese’s market gardeners.
Parts of the land were originally owned by local Gawler identity, Mr James Martin, who is often referred to as “The Father of Gawler”, as his foundry helped employ many locals and brought industry and commercial growth to the town.

 Goose Island, which sits about four meters below the level of the rest of the town, and lower than the eastern river bank, is prone to flooding. Before a swing bridge was built in 1889, residents had to navigate the river bed, and then climb the riverbank to get to Whitelaw Terrace and the rest of the town.

In 1865, Goose Island was used for sporting events. One such event was between Gawler’s H. Ortel and Kapunda’s Abel Marryat, who were sprinting against each over for the princely winnings of $40 pounds. Marryat won the races easily.
 As Gawler grew, people began to build on Goose Island, and soon many residents had little cottages surrounded by pig sties and chicken coops. In 1885, a Typhoid outbreak hit Goose Island, thought to be due to the unsanitary conditions being caused by stagnant water in the river. A few residents died, but the outbreak was contained quickly.

An attempt to damn the river to allow people to swim or boat on the south para lasted only a short while around the early 1900’s, with a downpour of rain soon cutting a new channel around the dam. The dam was eventually blown up with dynamite in the late 1930’s.
In 1899 the first swing bridge spanning from Goose Island to Walker Place was built. Unfortunately, as the South Para river was prone to extensive flooding every winter, the bridge was washed away only a year later.

 The bridge had to be built many times over the years, as flooding almost every winter, saw it destroyed.
It wasn’t until the late 1920’s that council found a solution for the bridge being washed away, and instead of just building a rope style swing bridge, or a reinforced wire swing bridge, it was decided to sink railway line in concrete in the base of the river to offer more stability, then add steel cable anchored on the riverbanks. This bridge lasted until 1937, when it was washed away again!
 
Not far from the swing bridge of Goose Island, a little area was set aside as a reserve for children to play. Water was diverted around the play area, which was adjacent to Walker Place creating a small island, the island itself covered with sand.
 Children often played here unsupervised, which led to the tragic death of 12-year-old Flora Kamprod on the 16th of July 1927. Flora had been playing in the sand with several friends, who had dug a tunnel, and a large chamber. The chamber and tunnel collapsed burying four children, with Flora being completely buried inside. A mad rush to get helped followed, but it was too late for young Flora who suffocated under the sand.
Flora wasn’t the only tragedy near Goose Island, in 1892, Willie Sampson, aged nine years, drowned in the river. Willie was playing with friends and dove into the water, and possibly hit his head on a submerged branch, and then got stuck.
 The two other boys called out for help, and it took two passers-by over an hour before they could pull Willie from the river…

In 1951, Goose Island was again covered in water, this time flooding the gardens of local business owner Mr Noack. Noack lost 3000 poppies, 4000 gladioli and other bulbs, but considered the damage only slight to his business

In 1985, Goose Island flooded again, but the bridge, built in the 1960’s withheld the raging torrent. Again, the river flooded in 2005, this time flooding well up into 8th street, but still the bridge survived!


Today, Goose Island is a reserve right in the heart of Gawler that may soon become another car park to meet the growing needs of the town. It will be interesting to see what artefacts are found if the proposed carpark for goose Island goes ahead.


You can also find more of Allen’s work on his Blog and facebook on the links below:

For More history on the Town of Gawler, please visit the Gawler History Team page “Gawler: now and Then” at: http://www.gawler.nowandthen.net.au/Main_Page

Gawler’s Hidden Secrets: Goose Island

Gawler’s Hidden Secrets: Goose Island



  Once known as Duck Flat, Gawler’s Goose Island is little known outside of the town.
At the end of 8th street, which was known as Water Street, sits the parkland which was once home to Chinese’s market gardeners.
Parts of the land were originally owned by local Gawler identity, Mr James Martin, who is often referred to as “The Father of Gawler”, as his foundry helped employ many locals and brought industry and commercial growth to the town.

 Goose Island, which sits about four meters below the level of the rest of the town, and lower than the eastern river bank, is prone to flooding. Before a swing bridge was built in 1889, residents had to navigate the river bed, and then climb the riverbank to get to Whitelaw Terrace and the rest of the town.

In 1865, Goose Island was used for sporting events. One such event was between Gawler’s H. Ortel and Kapunda’s Abel Marryat, who were sprinting against each over for the princely winnings of $40 pounds. Marryat won the races easily.
 As Gawler grew, people began to build on Goose Island, and soon many residents had little cottages surrounded by pig sties and chicken coops. In 1885, a Typhoid outbreak hit Goose Island, thought to be due to the unsanitary conditions being caused by stagnant water in the river. A few residents died, but the outbreak was contained quickly.

An attempt to damn the river to allow people to swim or boat on the south para lasted only a short while around the early 1900’s, with a downpour of rain soon cutting a new channel around the dam. The dam was eventually blown up with dynamite in the late 1930’s.
In 1899 the first swing bridge spanning from Goose Island to Walker Place was built. Unfortunately, as the South Para river was prone to extensive flooding every winter, the bridge was washed away only a year later.

 The bridge had to be built many times over the years, as flooding almost every winter, saw it destroyed.
It wasn’t until the late 1920’s that council found a solution for the bridge being washed away, and instead of just building a rope style swing bridge, or a reinforced wire swing bridge, it was decided to sink railway line in concrete in the base of the river to offer more stability, then add steel cable anchored on the riverbanks. This bridge lasted until 1937, when it was washed away again!
 
Not far from the swing bridge of Goose Island, a little area was set aside as a reserve for children to play. Water was diverted around the play area, which was adjacent to Walker Place creating a small island, the island itself covered with sand.
 Children often played here unsupervised, which led to the tragic death of 12-year-old Flora Kamprod on the 16th of July 1927. Flora had been playing in the sand with several friends, who had dug a tunnel, and a large chamber. The chamber and tunnel collapsed burying four children, with Flora being completely buried inside. A mad rush to get helped followed, but it was too late for young Flora who suffocated under the sand.
Flora wasn’t the only tragedy near Goose Island, in 1892, Willie Sampson, aged nine years, drowned in the river. Willie was playing with friends and dove into the water, and possibly hit his head on a submerged branch, and then got stuck.
 The two other boys called out for help, and it took two passers-by over an hour before they could pull Willie from the river…

In 1951, Goose Island was again covered in water, this time flooding the gardens of local business owner Mr Noack. Noack lost 3000 poppies, 4000 gladioli and other bulbs, but considered the damage only slight to his business

In 1985, Goose Island flooded again, but the bridge, built in the 1960’s withheld the raging torrent. Again, the river flooded in 2005, this time flooding well up into 8th street, but still the bridge survived!


Today, Goose Island is a reserve right in the heart of Gawler that may soon become another car park to meet the growing needs of the town. It will be interesting to see what artefacts are found if the proposed carpark for goose Island goes ahead.


You can also find more of Allen’s work on his Blog and facebook on the links below:

For More history on the Town of Gawler, please visit the Gawler History Team page “Gawler: now and Then” at: http://www.gawler.nowandthen.net.au/Main_Page

Gawler’s Hidden Secrets: "James Martin Memorial Statue"

Gawler’s Hidden Secrets: “James Martin Memorial Statue”


Remembered as “The Father of Gawler” James Martin’s Phoenix foundry on Calton Road produced railway locomotives, agricultural machinery and mining equipment. Established in 1848, the company soon became known as James Martin and Company Limited, and went on to employ 700 people in Gawler, making the town one of the most important industrial regions in South Australia of the time. Martin and Co Built 268 locomotives that were sent all over Australia.

 James Martin also went into politics and served firstly as an Alderman on Gawler’s first council, and in 1861 Mayor of Gawler, a position he served in for 8 years. He also served as the Member for Parliament for the Barossa from 1865-1868 and a Member of the Legislative Council from 1885 until 1899.

James Martin was also a Freemason, serving as Master of the Lodge of Fidelity from 1860 until 1870. He was the President of Gawler Institute, of which he had donated the land for the building to be constructed on, the President of the Gawler AH&F Society, an elected member of the Gawler School of Mines Council, a Co-Trustee of the St Georges Church fund, Captain of Gawler Rifles and a member of the Gawler Race club, just to name a few of his associations with the towns various organistions.

A statue commemorates industrialist James Martin. The statue was originally located at the corner of Murray Street and Calton Road. A plaque detailing a brief history of James Martin was added to the statue in 1998.

 After his death on December 24, 1899, a public meeting was held in Gawler in January 1900. It was decided a memorial fund would be created and that a memorial to Martin be established, in which it was voted that a Statue would be erected in his honour.
 The statue was carved by sculptor Gustave Henri Marchetti in Italy and is made from Carrara Marble, with a pedestal made from South Australian Granite. -it contains an inscription that reads: “James. Martin, 1821 -1899. A Public Tribute to His Worth.”
The statue was unveiled with much pomp and ceremony on the 15th August 1903 by Sir Samuel Way in its original position, adjacent to the Foundry Office of James Martin and Co on the corner of Calton road and Murray street.
In 2014 the statue underwent restoration, with a little cosmetic surgery to fix Mr Martins nose which had been broken off may years previously.
It was relocated to its current position on Whitelaw Terrace on the 2nd of June 1969.

You can also find more of Allen’s work on his Blog and facebook on the links below:

Gawler’s Hidden Secrets: "James Martin Memorial Statue"

Gawler’s Hidden Secrets: “James Martin Memorial Statue”


Remembered as “The Father of Gawler” James Martin’s Phoenix foundry on Calton Road produced railway locomotives, agricultural machinery and mining equipment. Established in 1848, the company soon became known as James Martin and Company Limited, and went on to employ 700 people in Gawler, making the town one of the most important industrial regions in South Australia of the time. Martin and Co Built 268 locomotives that were sent all over Australia.

 James Martin also went into politics and served firstly as an Alderman on Gawler’s first council, and in 1861 Mayor of Gawler, a position he served in for 8 years. He also served as the Member for Parliament for the Barossa from 1865-1868 and a Member of the Legislative Council from 1885 until 1899.

James Martin was also a Freemason, serving as Master of the Lodge of Fidelity from 1860 until 1870. He was the President of Gawler Institute, of which he had donated the land for the building to be constructed on, the President of the Gawler AH&F Society, an elected member of the Gawler School of Mines Council, a Co-Trustee of the St Georges Church fund, Captain of Gawler Rifles and a member of the Gawler Race club, just to name a few of his associations with the towns various organistions.

A statue commemorates industrialist James Martin. The statue was originally located at the corner of Murray Street and Calton Road. A plaque detailing a brief history of James Martin was added to the statue in 1998.

 After his death on December 24, 1899, a public meeting was held in Gawler in January 1900. It was decided a memorial fund would be created and that a memorial to Martin be established, in which it was voted that a Statue would be erected in his honour.
 The statue was carved by sculptor Gustave Henri Marchetti in Italy and is made from Carrara Marble, with a pedestal made from South Australian Granite. -it contains an inscription that reads: “James. Martin, 1821 -1899. A Public Tribute to His Worth.”
The statue was unveiled with much pomp and ceremony on the 15th August 1903 by Sir Samuel Way in its original position, adjacent to the Foundry Office of James Martin and Co on the corner of Calton road and Murray street.
In 2014 the statue underwent restoration, with a little cosmetic surgery to fix Mr Martins nose which had been broken off may years previously.
It was relocated to its current position on Whitelaw Terrace on the 2nd of June 1969.

You can also find more of Allen’s work on his Blog and facebook on the links below:

Beachport: Casualties of War

Beachport: Casualties of War

We think of you in silence.
With a heart that is sincere.
And cherish all the memories
Of the days when you were here.
The 19th of February 1942, the Japanese bombed Darwin, the first attack on the Australian mainland by a foreign invader in a major global conflict. The two air raids on Darwin killed 235 people with a further 300 to 400 wounded.
7th months earlier, in the southern coastal town of Beachport, South Australia, two other deaths, directly associated with the war occurred on the 14th of July 1941. The deaths of Able Seaman W.L. Danswan and Seaman T.W. Todd of the Royal Australian Navy.
 Sea mines, laid by the enemy, had begun to be found along the shipping routes of South Australia’s southern coast, with two sea mines found previously to this one. The mine was found 8 miles out at sea from Beachport, by local fisherman, Mr Stephens, who reported the find to the local constable.
 The navy was called, and three men, Lieut. Commander Greening, Able Seaman Danswan and Seaman Todd were sent from Adelaide to defuse or detonate the 4ft diameter iron sea mine.
Photo: An unidentified man standing next to the enemy mine 
which exploded and killed Junee serviceman 
William Danswan, as well as Thomas Todd.
(Source in Bibliography)
The Navy men arrived in Beachport on Sunday the 13th, and with the help of four local fisher boats, headed out to sea to tow the mine back to the shore and examine it. On Monday the 14th the mine was pulled ashore at Beachport for dismantling, but instead, it was decided that it would be easier to blow it up, so the mine was pulled across the bay by a boat, and taken ashore near an old piling to be destroyed.
 A demolition charge was connected to the mine, with a mile of cable ran out towards the cemetery, over a railway line, to ensure the safety of the 3 navy men. They pushed the plunger to detonate the mine, but it didn’t work, so a second line of cable was run out. This time, as the plunger was pushed, a passing railway truck disconnected the cable, and again the bomb did not explode.

The two Seamen waited 15 minutes, and made their way down to inspect the mine. They got within a few feet of it when it suddenly exploded, killing them almost instantly. Their Lieut. Commander, who had not descended the sand dunes, remained unharmed.
 Many locals, standing on the local jetty and beach front witnessed the large explosion and death of the Seamen, and many more came out to see what was going on after hearing the concussive blast of the detonation.,

 Able Seaman W.L.E. Danswan, who was from the town of Junee in New South Wales, was transferred from the H.M.A.S. Canberra to the Birkenhead Naval Base only 4 months previously. He left behind a widow.
Seaman T.W. Todd, who was from Rosewater, S.A. left behind a wife, Gwendoline Todd, and a young son, Ronald.

A monument to the men, the first two casualties on Australian soil of World War Two, stands at the eastern end of the surf beach carpark on the Millicent-Beachport road

© 2018 Allen Tiller
Bibliography:
1941 ‘MILLICENT NEWS.’, Southern Cross (Adelaide, SA : 1889 – 1954), 25 July, p. 6. , viewed 01 Jan 2018, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article167770740
1941 ‘MINE EXPLOSION AT BEACHPORT.’, The South Eastern Times (Millicent, SA : 1906 – 1954), 18 July, p. 2. , viewed 01 Jan 2018, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article200099123
1941 ‘No Title’, The South Eastern Times (
Millicent, SA : 1906 – 1954)
, 22 July, p. 1. , viewed 01 Jan 2018,
http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article200099143
1949 ‘Family Notices’, The Advertiser (Adelaide, SA : 1931 – 1954), 14 July, p. 14. , viewed 01 Jan 2018, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article36675976
National Archives of Australia, 2018, The bombing of Darwin – Fact sheet 195, National Archives of Australia, Australian Government, viewed 01 Jan 2018, http://www.naa.gov.au/collection/fact-sheets/fs195.aspx

Beachport: Casualties of War

Beachport: Casualties of War

We think of you in silence.
With a heart that is sincere.
And cherish all the memories
Of the days when you were here.
The 19th of February 1942, the Japanese bombed Darwin, the first attack on the Australian mainland by a foreign invader in a major global conflict. The two air raids on Darwin killed 235 people with a further 300 to 400 wounded.
7th months earlier, in the southern coastal town of Beachport, South Australia, two other deaths, directly associated with the war occurred on the 14th of July 1941. The deaths of Able Seaman W.L. Danswan and Seaman T.W. Todd of the Royal Australian Navy.
 Sea mines, laid by the enemy, had begun to be found along the shipping routes of South Australia’s southern coast, with two sea mines found previously to this one. The mine was found 8 miles out at sea from Beachport, by local fisherman, Mr Stephens, who reported the find to the local constable.
 The navy was called, and three men, Lieut. Commander Greening, Able Seaman Danswan and Seaman Todd were sent from Adelaide to defuse or detonate the 4ft diameter iron sea mine.
Photo: An unidentified man standing next to the enemy mine 
which exploded and killed Junee serviceman 
William Danswan, as well as Thomas Todd.
(Source in Bibliography)
The Navy men arrived in Beachport on Sunday the 13th, and with the help of four local fisher boats, headed out to sea to tow the mine back to the shore and examine it. On Monday the 14th the mine was pulled ashore at Beachport for dismantling, but instead, it was decided that it would be easier to blow it up, so the mine was pulled across the bay by a boat, and taken ashore near an old piling to be destroyed.
 A demolition charge was connected to the mine, with a mile of cable ran out towards the cemetery, over a railway line, to ensure the safety of the 3 navy men. They pushed the plunger to detonate the mine, but it didn’t work, so a second line of cable was run out. This time, as the plunger was pushed, a passing railway truck disconnected the cable, and again the bomb did not explode.

The two Seamen waited 15 minutes, and made their way down to inspect the mine. They got within a few feet of it when it suddenly exploded, killing them almost instantly. Their Lieut. Commander, who had not descended the sand dunes, remained unharmed.
 Many locals, standing on the local jetty and beach front witnessed the large explosion and death of the Seamen, and many more came out to see what was going on after hearing the concussive blast of the detonation.,

 Able Seaman W.L.E. Danswan, who was from the town of Junee in New South Wales, was transferred from the H.M.A.S. Canberra to the Birkenhead Naval Base only 4 months previously. He left behind a widow.
Seaman T.W. Todd, who was from Rosewater, S.A. left behind a wife, Gwendoline Todd, and a young son, Ronald.

A monument to the men, the first two casualties on Australian soil of World War Two, stands at the eastern end of the surf beach carpark on the Millicent-Beachport road

© 2018 Allen Tiller
Bibliography:
1941 ‘MILLICENT NEWS.’, Southern Cross (Adelaide, SA : 1889 – 1954), 25 July, p. 6. , viewed 01 Jan 2018, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article167770740
1941 ‘MINE EXPLOSION AT BEACHPORT.’, The South Eastern Times (Millicent, SA : 1906 – 1954), 18 July, p. 2. , viewed 01 Jan 2018, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article200099123
1941 ‘No Title’, The South Eastern Times (Millicent, SA : 1906 – 1954), 22 July, p. 1. , viewed 01 Jan 2018, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article200099143
1949 ‘Family Notices’, The Advertiser (Adelaide, SA : 1931 – 1954), 14 July, p. 14. , viewed 01 Jan 2018, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article36675976
National Archives of Australia, 2018, The bombing of Darwin – Fact sheet 195, National Archives of Australia, Australian Government, viewed 01 Jan 2018, http://www.naa.gov.au/collection/fact-sheets/fs195.aspx

Enfield Receiving House

Enfield Receiving House 

Enfield Receiving House circa 1926

The Enfield Receiving House was an 80-bed facility built in 1922 to house South Australia’s mentally ill patients who were classified as “10th Schedule Admissions”. This hospital, and other mental health facilities in the State, came under the supervision of the Superintendent of Mental Institutions, Dr. H.M. Birch.
 The Enfield Receiving House was situated on a 20-acre block at the corner of Grand Junction Rd, Foster’s Rd and Hilltop Drive Adelaide, South Australia which remains vacant since its declassification in 1982 and subsequent demolition. A mental health facility still occupies some of the land where once sat the Northfield Security Hospital (1973 – 1987) for the criminally insane at the rear of where the Enfield Hospital once sat. That facility is James Nash House, built in 1987, which is a facility for ‘Forensic Mental Health’.

circa 1929

Children were often housed with adults in the Enfield Receiving House. In 1935 a new Mental Defectives Act was passed that allowed the Minister to pass any person in a Government run facility, such as a gaol or reformatory, into a hospital for mental defectives. This meant that “criminal mental defectives” and children with intellectual disabilities could be housed in the same facility, and some confined to the same wards!

 The Enfield Receiving House had its name changed in 1963 to the Enfield Hospital, but still acted in the same capacity, receiving those with intellectual disabilities and mental health problems, taking in both children and adults.
The difference between a Receiving Hospital and a Mental Hospital was a legal definition, that a Receiving Hospital is a temporary or observational treatment facility versus a Mental Hospital which is a facility for a more permanent patient stay.

Under old laws a patient could be admitted to a receiving house under a justice’s order (s.32) and could legally be held (against their will) for 30 days, or if admitted on request (s.35), for two months.
  These periods could be extended by new court proceedings, but only for a total of six months.
Committal to a mental hospital, such as Hillcrest or Glenside was seen as a more permanent form of institutionalisation and was governed by different laws, however, many patients from receiving homes ended up in these facilities.

 Disturbing for some readers, is a book titled “The Last of the Lunatics”, written by former director of the Enfield Receiving house, between 1951 and 1963, John Cawte AO, MB BS, MD, DPM, PhD, FRANZCP, FRCPsych, FAPA.

 In his book Cawte describes many aspects of his time at the hospital, often referring to specific cases taken from his own files, which survived the demolition of the hospital in 1982.
 Cawte describes the use of continuous water baths, straight-jackets and padded cells, but perhaps most disturbing is his candid descriptions of electroconvulsive therapy and surgical lobotomies, or the use of insulin to produce comas in patients (sometimes known as ICT – insulin coma therapy or IST – Insulin shock therapy).

In 1979, The Enfield Hospital became part of the Hillcrest Hospital, and by 1982 was fully incorporated as part of the Hillcrest facility. Hill crest Hospital was decommissioned in 1994 and parts of the site sold off.

 One part that remained, was Makk and McLeay and Clements House, three wards of the Oakden Older Person’s Mental Health Service, which was closed in 2017 after allegations of mistreatment by staff of its patients.


Researched and written by Allen Tiller © 2018
https://www.facebook.com/TheHauntsOfAdelaide/

References. 
Cawte, John, 1998, The Last of the Lunatics, Melbourne University Press; Melbourne (Australia)

George, T. S.  1972, “COMMITMENT AND DISCHARGE OF THE MENTALLY ILL IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA”, The Adelaide Law Review, Iss.4, p. 331 viewed 2 July 2018, http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/journals/AdelLawRw/1972/5.pdf

State Records of South Australia, ‘Agency Details: GA1993 Enfield Receiving House, later Enfield Hospital 1922 – 1981’, in State Records of South Australia, ArchivesSearch, http://archives.sa.gov.au.

Enfield Receiving House – 10th Schedule Mental Health Admissions

Enfield Receiving House 

Enfield Receiving House circa 1926

The Enfield Receiving House was an 80-bed facility built in 1922 to house South Australia’s mentally ill patients who were classified as “10th Schedule Admissions”. This hospital and other mental health facilities in the State came under the supervision of the Superintendent of Mental Institutions, Dr H.M. Birch.
 The Enfield Receiving House was situated on a 20-acre block at the corner of Grand Junction Rd, Foster’s Rd and Hilltop Drive Adelaide, South Australia which remains vacant since its declassification in 1982 and subsequent demolition. A mental health facility still occupies some of the lands where once sat the Northfield Security Hospital (1973 – 1987) for the criminally insane at the rear of where the Enfield Hospital once sat. That facility is James Nash House, built in 1987, which is a facility for ‘Forensic Mental Health’.

circa 1929

Children were often housed with adults in the Enfield Receiving House. In 1935 a new Mental Defectives Act was passed that allowed the Minister to pass any person in a Government run facility, such as a gaol or reformatory, into a hospital for mental defectives. This meant that “criminal mental defectives” and children with intellectual disabilities could be housed in the same facility, and some confined to the same wards!

 The Enfield Receiving House had its name changed in 1963 to the Enfield Hospital, but still acted in the same capacity, receiving those with intellectual disabilities and mental health problems, taking in both children and adults.
The difference between a Receiving Hospital and a Mental Hospital was a legal definition, that a Receiving Hospital is a temporary or observational treatment facility versus a Mental Hospital which is a facility for a more permanent patient stay.

Under old laws a patient could be admitted to a receiving house under a justice’s order (s.32) and could legally be held (against their will) for 30 days, or if admitted on request (s.35), for two months.
  These periods could be extended by new court proceedings, but only for a total of six months.
Committal to a mental hospital, such as Hillcrest or Glenside was seen as a more permanent form of institutionalisation and was governed by different laws, however, many patients from receiving homes ended up in these facilities.

 Disturbing for some readers is a book titled “The Last of the Lunatics”, written by the former director of the Enfield Receiving house, between 1951 and 1963, John Cawte AO, MB BS, MD, DPM, PhD, FRANZCP, FRCPsych, FAPA.

 In his book Cawte describes many aspects of his time at the hospital, often referring to specific cases taken from his own files, which survived the demolition of the hospital in 1982.
 Cawte describes the use of continuous water baths, straight-jackets and padded cells, but perhaps most disturbing is his candid descriptions of electroconvulsive therapy and surgical lobotomies, or the use of insulin to produce comas in patients (sometimes known as ICT – insulin coma therapy or IST – Insulin shock therapy).

In 1979, The Enfield Hospital became part of the Hillcrest Hospital, and by 1982 was fully incorporated as part of the Hillcrest facility. Hillcrest Hospital was decommissioned in 1994 and parts of the site sold off.

 One part that remained, was Makk and McLeay and Clements House, three wards of the Oakden Older Person’s Mental Health Service, which was closed in 2017 after allegations of mistreatment by the staff of its patients.


Researched and written by Allen Tiller © 2018
https://www.facebook.com/TheHauntsOfAdelaide/

References. 
Cawte, John, 1998, The Last of the Lunatics, Melbourne University Press; Melbourne (Australia)

George, T. S.  1972, “COMMITMENT AND DISCHARGE OF THE MENTALLY ILL IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA”, The Adelaide Law Review, Iss.4, p. 331 viewed 2 July 2018, http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/journals/AdelLawRw/1972/5.pdf

State Records of South Australia, ‘Agency Details: GA1993 Enfield Receiving House, later Enfield Hospital 1922 – 1981’, in State Records of South Australia, ArchivesSearch, http://archives.sa.gov.au.

The Adelaide Ghosts & Ghouls Walking Tour

The Adelaide Ghosts & Ghouls Walking Tour

The Adelaide Ghosts and Ghouls Walking Tour explores the stories behind Adelaide’s alleged hauntings and crimes, while shedding light on some our city’s more chilling history. The tour is a collaboration between paranormal investigator Allen Tiller, sound recordist Anthony Frith, and Adelaide City Libraries. It was designed and developed based on research from Allen’s history residency at the libraries in 2016, along with a range of ghost stories brought forward via public consultation sessions.
You can download the tour here, and guide yourself any time of the day or night!
Follow on facebook:
Tour locations

A surprise stop on the tour launch night, when Allen Tiller threw in an extra talk about the ghost that allegedly haunts the former channel 9 studios on Tynte Street

The Adelaide Arcade

St Peter and Paul’s Cathedral North Adelaide

The Adelaide Ghosts & Ghouls Walking Tour

The Adelaide Ghosts & Ghouls Walking Tour

The Adelaide Ghosts and Ghouls Walking Tour explores the stories behind Adelaide’s alleged hauntings and crimes, while shedding light on some our city’s more chilling history. The tour is a collaboration between paranormal investigator Allen Tiller, sound recordist Anthony Frith, and Adelaide City Libraries. It was designed and developed based on research from Allen’s history residency at the libraries in 2016, along with a range of ghost stories brought forward via public consultation sessions.
You can download the tour here, and guide yourself any time of the day or night!
Follow on facebook:
Tour locations

A surprise stop on the tour launch night, when Allen Tiller threw in an extra talk about the ghost that allegedly haunts the former channel 9 studios on Tynte Street

The Adelaide Arcade

St Peter and Paul’s Cathedral North Adelaide