Monthly Archives: May 2017

The Parkside Body in the Freezer Case: Incompetent Coroner? (part 4)


The Parkside Body in the Freezer Case: 

Incompetent Coroner? (part 4)

 

Was the case against David Szach, convicted of murdering his older lover, Derrance Stevenson, flawed because of an incompetent South Australian Coroner?
This is the question being posed by several individuals interested in the case known as “The Body in the Freezer Case” that thrust Adelaide into the spotlight for all the wrong reasons in 1979/ 1980.

Police removing the freezer in which the body of
Derrance Stevenson had been found in his home.
 Questions have been raised about the procedures used by Coroner Dr Colin Manock. It would seem in recent years a number of high profile cases that saw convictions against suspected murderers, have recently been overturned due to the improper procedures applied by Dr Manock.
Dr Colin Manock worked as South Australia’s Chief Forensic Pathologist between 1968 and 1995, he conducted more than 9000 autopsies and gave evidence in just about every major case in the State in that time.
Dr Colin Manock was SA’s chief forensic pathologist for almost 30 years. Between 1968 and 1995, he conducted more than 9,000 autopsies and gave evidence in almost every major case.

Perhaps the highest profile overturned conviction which goes against evidence supplied by Dr Manock is that of the death of popular Adelaide lawyer Anna-Jane Cheney, who was found dead in her bathtub.
 Henry Keogh, a recently separated man with children, who began to date Ms Cheney, was accused of her murder, on the grounds he was trying to cash in her 1-million-dollar insurance policy.
The case seemed to rest on evidence supplied by Dr Manock, which pointed at Ms Cheney being drowned (Mr Keogh’s supports have always claimed Ms Cheney had a seizure in the bath and drowned accidentally).
In 1995, Keogh faced a trial, which ended up with a hung jury, triggering a retrial. The second trial later that year found Keogh guilty of murder. He was sentenced to life in gaol with a non-prole period of 25 years.
A campaign began almost immediately to free Keogh that lasted almost 20 years. Eventually after endless appeals, The Full Court of the Criminal Court of Criminal Appeal’s ruled there had been a “substantial miscarriage of justice” and a retrial was set for Keogh.
Keogh was able to make bail and released after 20 years in gaol while the third trial, brought about by the appeal, was heard. Keogh endured 10 months of uncertainty as Director of Public Prosecutions, Adam Kimber, SC, re-laid the murder charge before issuing a nolle prosequi[1]in November 2015 allowing Keogh to walk a free man.

Former South Australian Chief Forensic Investigator
Dr Manock
The reason for the nolle prosequi come back to Dr Manock’s assessments of the body of Ms Cheney, that the full court agreed were “unreliable”, stating that his conclusions “not properly explored” and his autopsy “inadequate”. Summarised as “unwarranted speculation”
The case rested on a number of bruises on Ms Cheney’s leg that Dr Manock speculated were made by the hand grip of a man.

So where does this tie in with the case against David Szach?

Dr Manock was the forensic coroner on the Derrance Stevenson case. 

Time Line:

17:30 June 5th 1979: Dr Manock enters the Stevenson residence in Parkside where he is met by police officers. He waits for police to dust the freezer (which is switched off) for fingerprints and for photos of the object to be taken.

18:00: the freezer lid is opened and Dr Manock sees the body of Stevenson for the first time.
From the Coroner Report 
I was able to see the body of a male adult in a head down position. A basket of frozen food was above the head and two plastic bags of frozen food were over the buttocks and lower back. Hypostatic staining was visible on the back of the body and I pronounced life extinct at that time. I noted that the freezer was switched off at the mains power point.”

 Frozen food also in the freezer is removed. The body is removed from the freezer and placed on a plastic sheet, further photographs are taken.
The body is then transported to the Forensic Science Centre at Divett Place, Adelaide.
20:00: The body temperature is taken via a needle probe inserted into the liver. A constant temperature is recorded, with the maximum temperature being +7.2 C
An examination of the bullet wound takes place via X-rays.
Further examination does not continue as Dr Manock states that the skin and organs were still deep frozen and unconducive to examination.
8:20 June 6th 1979: Dr Manock continues his examination of the body.
At 0820 hours on 6 June 1979:  I recommenced the examination. 
 The freezer was also tested for its normal running temperatures, this was to help establish a time of death. (read the entire Coronial report here: http://netk.net.au/Szach/AutopsyReport.asp)
This is where the opinion of today’s forensic specialists criticise Dr Manock’s methodology in the case. Considering the time of the death that Dr Manock implied was the basis for putting Szach in the house at time of death, and implicating him for the murder, it is an important piece of evidence to have correct.
They point out that the method used by Dr Manock to calculate the time of death is based on a formula initially proposed by Fiddes and Patten work published in the Journal of Forensic Medicine in 1958. The experiments undertaken for this journal involved bodies having their temperature measured after they had been frozen laid out flat, not in the foetal position as was Mr Stevenson.
Dr Manock adjusted his formula by 40% to compensate for Stevenson’s body being in the foetal position, Dr Manock does not give any scientific reason for his adjustment of 40%, and this is where his argument about the correct time of death falls flat on its face with today’s forensic testers.
A few years after the trial another forensic pathologist looked at Dr Manock’s results and stated in a review why it was not appropriate for Dr Manock to use the formula he did, or substitute important key data, like a liver temperature reading for an anal temperature reading, without a scientific reason for doing so.

 He also pointed out factors such as not knowing the room temperature when Mr Stevenson died, or how long there was between being shot, and being put into the freezer. He made no accommodation for the freezer being put into “superchill” mode, which would have added another negative 8 degrees to the cooling temperature.
Derrance Stevenson’s odd, iconic house on Greenhill Road, Parkside, circa 1979
In 1978. Dr Manock was the at centre of a controversial autopsy that he did in the open, in front of the public, in a small South Australian town. The story didn’t become public until a recent court case.
WARNING: ABORIGINAL AND TORRES STRAIGHT ISLANDERS MAYBE OFFENDED BY THIS VIDEO: 
Another high-profile case that Dr Manock work has been criticised in, is in regards to the 1971 murder of teenager Deborah Leach on a beach at Taperoo. The crime saw Frits Van Beelan convicted and serving 17 years in gaol. He is now appealing his conviction based on wrongful evidence supplied by Dr Manock.
It would seem there are many issues with evidence provided by Dr Manock, across many cases, and judging by the video above, perhaps there is something more sinister behind his position and personality. If one places a puppet in control of evidence in cases, one can pervert the course of justice to one’s own end….a conspiracy perhaps?

Next Week: The Parkside Body in the Freezer Case: The Appeal (part 5)

(Bibliography in the final blog post of this series)


[1]“nolle prosequi” a formal notice of abandonment by a plaintiff or prosecutor of all or part of a suit.

The Parkside Body in the Freezer Case: Incompetent Coroner? (part 4)


The Parkside Body in the Freezer Case: 

Incompetent Coroner? (part 4)

 

Was the case against David Szach, convicted of murdering his older lover, Derrance Stevenson, flawed because of an incompetent South Australian Coroner?
This is the question being posed by several individuals interested in the case known as “The Body in the Freezer Case” that thrust Adelaide into the spotlight for all the wrong reasons in 1979/ 1980.

Police removing the freezer in which the body of
Derrance Stevenson had been found in his home.
 Questions have been raised about the procedures used by Coroner Dr Colin Manock. It would seem in recent years a number of high profile cases that saw convictions against suspected murderers, have recently been overturned due to the improper procedures applied by Dr Manock.
Dr Colin Manock worked as South Australia’s Chief Forensic Pathologist between 1968 and 1995, he conducted more than 9000 autopsies and gave evidence in just about every major case in the State in that time.
Dr Colin Manock was SA’s chief forensic pathologist for almost 30 years. Between 1968 and 1995, he conducted more than 9,000 autopsies and gave evidence in almost every major case.

Perhaps the highest profile overturned conviction which goes against evidence supplied by Dr Manock is that of the death of popular Adelaide lawyer Anna-Jane Cheney, who was found dead in her bathtub.
 Henry Keogh, a recently separated man with children, who began to date Ms Cheney, was accused of her murder, on the grounds he was trying to cash in her 1-million-dollar insurance policy.
The case seemed to rest on evidence supplied by Dr Manock, which pointed at Ms Cheney being drowned (Mr Keogh’s supports have always claimed Ms Cheney had a seizure in the bath and drowned accidentally).
In 1995, Keogh faced a trial, which ended up with a hung jury, triggering a retrial. The second trial later that year found Keogh guilty of murder. He was sentenced to life in gaol with a non-prole period of 25 years.
A campaign began almost immediately to free Keogh that lasted almost 20 years. Eventually after endless appeals, The Full Court of the Criminal Court of Criminal Appeal’s ruled there had been a “substantial miscarriage of justice” and a retrial was set for Keogh.
Keogh was able to make bail and released after 20 years in gaol while the third trial, brought about by the appeal, was heard. Keogh endured 10 months of uncertainty as Director of Public Prosecutions, Adam Kimber, SC, re-laid the murder charge before issuing a nolle prosequi[1]in November 2015 allowing Keogh to walk a free man.

Former South Australian Chief Forensic Investigator
Dr Manock
The reason for the nolle prosequi come back to Dr Manock’s assessments of the body of Ms Cheney, that the full court agreed were “unreliable”, stating that his conclusions “not properly explored” and his autopsy “inadequate”. Summarised as “unwarranted speculation”
The case rested on a number of bruises on Ms Cheney’s leg that Dr Manock speculated were made by the hand grip of a man.

So where does this tie in with the case against David Szach?

Dr Manock was the forensic coroner on the Derrance Stevenson case. 

Time Line:

17:30 June 5th 1979: Dr Manock enters the Stevenson residence in Parkside where he is met by police officers. He waits for police to dust the freezer (which is switched off) for fingerprints and for photos of the object to be taken.

18:00: the freezer lid is opened and Dr Manock sees the body of Stevenson for the first time.
From the Coroner Report 
I was able to see the body of a male adult in a head down position. A basket of frozen food was above the head and two plastic bags of frozen food were over the buttocks and lower back. Hypostatic staining was visible on the back of the body and I pronounced life extinct at that time. I noted that the freezer was switched off at the mains power point.”

 Frozen food also in the freezer is removed. The body is removed from the freezer and placed on a plastic sheet, further photographs are taken.
The body is then transported to the Forensic Science Centre at Divett Place, Adelaide.
20:00: The body temperature is taken via a needle probe inserted into the liver. A constant temperature is recorded, with the maximum temperature being +7.2 C
An examination of the bullet wound takes place via X-rays.
Further examination does not continue as Dr Manock states that the skin and organs were still deep frozen and unconducive to examination.
8:20 June 6th 1979: Dr Manock continues his examination of the body.
At 0820 hours on 6 June 1979:  I recommenced the examination. 
 The freezer was also tested for its normal running temperatures, this was to help establish a time of death. (read the entire Coronial report here: http://netk.net.au/Szach/AutopsyReport.asp)
This is where the opinion of today’s forensic specialists criticise Dr Manock’s methodology in the case. Considering the time of the death that Dr Manock implied was the basis for putting Szach in the house at time of death, and implicating him for the murder, it is an important piece of evidence to have correct.
They point out that the method used by Dr Manock to calculate the time of death is based on a formula initially proposed by Fiddes and Patten work published in the Journal of Forensic Medicine in 1958. The experiments undertaken for this journal involved bodies having their temperature measured after they had been frozen laid out flat, not in the foetal position as was Mr Stevenson.
Dr Manock adjusted his formula by 40% to compensate for Stevenson’s body being in the foetal position, Dr Manock does not give any scientific reason for his adjustment of 40%, and this is where his argument about the correct time of death falls flat on its face with today’s forensic testers.
A few years after the trial another forensic pathologist looked at Dr Manock’s results and stated in a review why it was not appropriate for Dr Manock to use the formula he did, or substitute important key data, like a liver temperature reading for an anal temperature reading, without a scientific reason for doing so.

 He also pointed out factors such as not knowing the room temperature when Mr Stevenson died, or how long there was between being shot, and being put into the freezer. He made no accommodation for the freezer being put into “superchill” mode, which would have added another negative 8 degrees to the cooling temperature.
Derrance Stevenson’s odd, iconic house on Greenhill Road, Parkside, circa 1979
In 1978. Dr Manock was the at centre of a controversial autopsy that he did in the open, in front of the public, in a small South Australian town. The story didn’t become public until a recent court case.
WARNING: ABORIGINAL AND TORRES STRAIGHT ISLANDERS MAYBE OFFENDED BY THIS VIDEO: 
Another high-profile case that Dr Manock work has been criticised in, is in regards to the 1971 murder of teenager Deborah Leach on a beach at Taperoo. The crime saw Frits Van Beelan convicted and serving 17 years in gaol. He is now appealing his conviction based on wrongful evidence supplied by Dr Manock.
It would seem there are many issues with evidence provided by Dr Manock, across many cases, and judging by the video above, perhaps there is something more sinister behind his position and personality. If one places a puppet in control of evidence in cases, one can pervert the course of justice to one’s own end….a conspiracy perhaps?

Next Week: The Parkside Body in the Freezer Case: The Appeal (part 5)

(Bibliography in the final blog post of this series)


[1]“nolle prosequi” a formal notice of abandonment by a plaintiff or prosecutor of all or part of a suit.

The Parkside Body in the Freezer Case:Gino "Luigi" Gambardella (part 3)


The Parkside Body in the Freezer Case:

 Gino “Luigi” Gambardella 

 

Gino “Luigi” Gambardella was a well-known, chiropractor who ran his practice from a business premises on Prospect Road, Prospect in the 1970’s.
 “Luigi” as he was known, was very well known in Adelaide’s 70’s gay sex scene, often seen frequenting Adelaide’s gay strips looking for young men.

Gambardella was a close friend of Derrance Stevenson, and Bevan Spencer Von Einem, and connected with a number of Von Eminem’s associates.

Downtown – Hindley Street, Adelaide
One of the places Gambardella would pick up
young men for his clients

Gambardella was present at the house of Derrance Stevenson on the night of his murder, his distinctive green and white Ford Falcon as seen parked in the driveway of the distinctive house in Parkside.
 David Szach’s, who convicted for the murder of Stevenson, also speculated that Gambardella was the person behind a number of threatening phone calls that were received at Stevenson’s house after Stevenson had decided to try and leave a secret group of men involved in drugging and filming young men in the late 1970’s.

Gambardella was charged in 1979 as an accessory to murder in the Stevenson case, but his charges were later dropped. It was during the case that it was revealed that Gambardella was known scout for the secretive group, frequenting Adelaide’s gay hotspots, during his lunch breaks, and after work, recruiting young men for sex with a client list of Adelaide’s wealthy and elite.
Gambardella fled South Australia after his brush with the law in 1980. It is believed he went into hiding in Italy. It was during an inquest into “The Family” murders, surrounding the case of Bevan Spencer Von Einem, that Gambardella’s identity and paedophilic past was presented into the public arena.

Gambardella was known to police, he had had several young men place reports against him in the 1970’s, but the reports were ignored by police. A young man reported that Gambardella had picked him up in 1997. Gambardella had first taken him to Stevenson’s Parkside home, only to find the lawyer not home, so he drove the young man to his Prospect business premises.
Once inside, he showed the young man an amateur pornographic movie and then sexually assaulted him.

Gambardella was also known to be a drug dealer, and it is thought this is how he lured young men into his seedy world. It is alleged, that once the men were high, Gambardella could do whatever he wanted, and often he would film them for his network, sometimes he would take photos of the young boys with objects firmly pushed into their backsides – nothing was out of the question for

Gambardella’s depraved network of buyers.

Gambardella was also known for picking up hitchhikers and sexually assaulting them. It was alleged during the “Family Murders” investigation, that Gambardella would take the hitchhikers up to Stevenson’s home and the two men would sexually assault them together.
 It was Gambardella who introduced the 16-year-old Szach’s to Stevenson, Gambardella had promised the teenager a successful career in modelling, and had insisted on photographing him.

It has also been alleged that Gambardella would place fake job ads in local newspapers for a part time gardening position. Young men would apply, and Gambardella would interview them. Often his questioning would lead toward risqué topics, to measure the boy’s response, and it is alleged he would then single out the ones who weren’t suspicious or reacted in certain ways for future sexual assaults.  

Gambardella’s location is currently unknown, but Police have dropped any charges they had against

Veale Gardens – South Adelaide Parklands
A notorious gay sex hangout in the 1970’s, in walking distance
to Derrance Stevensons ‘house in Parkside
(source SBS)

the man in the hope he may come forward and
offer names or evidence against others involved in the Family murders.
Another interesting character associated with Gambardella and Stevenson is former High Court Judge, Lionel Murphy. It is alleged that the former Judge was present on the night of Stevenson’s death. 

This claim first surfaced in 1991, when the Legal Services Commission contacted David Szach’s and stated that someone had come forward with information about the visit. A taxi driver is alleged to have dropped Mr Murphy and two other men off at the house in Parkside on the night of the murder.

 Lionel Murphy died in 1986, after a long career which saw him serve as the attorney-general in the Whitlam Government. His long career ended in controversy when he charged with trying to pervert the course of Justice in 1985, and jailed. His conviction was swiftly over-turned and Judge Murphy returned as a working Judge, this led Bob Hawke to invoke an inquiry into the matter.

The case was reported in The Australian (newspaper) in December 2016 as “one of the greatest judicial scandals since federation was left with no conclusion, the commission being abandoned when it was revealed Murphy had been diagnosed with cancer and had only months to live” by reporter Kylar Loussikian.
Murphy died in 1986 after a brief fight against cancer.
If High Court Judge Lionel Murphy was at the Stevenson house in 1979, what was he doing there?
Who were the other men he was with?

The only person who might be able to answer that question in Gambardella, and no one is certain where he is, or if he is even still alive! 

Next Week: The Parkside Body in the Freezer Case: Incompetent Coroner? (part 4)

(Bibliography in the final blog post of this series)
 

The Parkside Body in the Freezer Case:Gino "Luigi" Gambardella (part 3)


The Parkside Body in the Freezer Case:

 Gino “Luigi” Gambardella 

 

Gino “Luigi” Gambardella was a well-known, chiropractor who ran his practice from a business premises on Prospect Road, Prospect in the 1970’s.
 “Luigi” as he was known, was very well known in Adelaide’s 70’s gay sex scene, often seen frequenting Adelaide’s gay strips looking for young men.

Gambardella was a close friend of Derrance Stevenson, and Bevan Spencer Von Einem, and connected with a number of Von Eminem’s associates.

Downtown – Hindley Street, Adelaide
One of the places Gambardella would pick up
young men for his clients

Gambardella was present at the house of Derrance Stevenson on the night of his murder, his distinctive green and white Ford Falcon as seen parked in the driveway of the distinctive house in Parkside.
 David Szach’s, who convicted for the murder of Stevenson, also speculated that Gambardella was the person behind a number of threatening phone calls that were received at Stevenson’s house after Stevenson had decided to try and leave a secret group of men involved in drugging and filming young men in the late 1970’s.

Gambardella was charged in 1979 as an accessory to murder in the Stevenson case, but his charges were later dropped. It was during the case that it was revealed that Gambardella was known scout for the secretive group, frequenting Adelaide’s gay hotspots, during his lunch breaks, and after work, recruiting young men for sex with a client list of Adelaide’s wealthy and elite.
Gambardella fled South Australia after his brush with the law in 1980. It is believed he went into hiding in Italy. It was during an inquest into “The Family” murders, surrounding the case of Bevan Spencer Von Einem, that Gambardella’s identity and paedophilic past was presented into the public arena.

Gambardella was known to police, he had had several young men place reports against him in the 1970’s, but the reports were ignored by police. A young man reported that Gambardella had picked him up in 1997. Gambardella had first taken him to Stevenson’s Parkside home, only to find the lawyer not home, so he drove the young man to his Prospect business premises.
Once inside, he showed the young man an amateur pornographic movie and then sexually assaulted him.

Gambardella was also known to be a drug dealer, and it is thought this is how he lured young men into his seedy world. It is alleged, that once the men were high, Gambardella could do whatever he wanted, and often he would film them for his network, sometimes he would take photos of the young boys with objects firmly pushed into their backsides – nothing was out of the question for

Gambardella’s depraved network of buyers.

Gambardella was also known for picking up hitchhikers and sexually assaulting them. It was alleged during the “Family Murders” investigation, that Gambardella would take the hitchhikers up to Stevenson’s home and the two men would sexually assault them together.
 It was Gambardella who introduced the 16-year-old Szach’s to Stevenson, Gambardella had promised the teenager a successful career in modelling, and had insisted on photographing him.

It has also been alleged that Gambardella would place fake job ads in local newspapers for a part time gardening position. Young men would apply, and Gambardella would interview them. Often his questioning would lead toward risqué topics, to measure the boy’s response, and it is alleged he would then single out the ones who weren’t suspicious or reacted in certain ways for future sexual assaults.  

Gambardella’s location is currently unknown, but Police have dropped any charges they had against

Veale Gardens – South Adelaide Parklands
A notorious gay sex hangout in the 1970’s, in walking distance
to Derrance Stevensons ‘house in Parkside
(source SBS)

the man in the hope he may come forward and offer names or evidence against others involved in the Family murders.
Another interesting character associated with Gambardella and Stevenson is former High Court Judge, Lionel Murphy. It is alleged that the former Judge was present on the night of Stevenson’s death. 

This claim first surfaced in 1991, when the Legal Services Commission contacted David Szach’s and stated that someone had come forward with information about the visit. A taxi driver is alleged to have dropped Mr Murphy and two other men off at the house in Parkside on the night of the murder.

 Lionel Murphy died in 1986, after a long career which saw him serve as the attorney-general in the Whitlam Government. His long career ended in controversy when he charged with trying to pervert the course of Justice in 1985, and jailed. His conviction was swiftly over-turned and Judge Murphy returned as a working Judge, this led Bob Hawke to invoke an inquiry into the matter.

The case was reported in The Australian (newspaper) in December 2016 as “one of the greatest judicial scandals since federation was left with no conclusion, the commission being abandoned when it was revealed Murphy had been diagnosed with cancer and had only months to live” by reporter Kylar Loussikian.
Murphy died in 1986 after a brief fight against cancer.
If High Court Judge Lionel Murphy was at the Stevenson house in 1979, what was he doing there?
Who were the other men he was with?

The only person who might be able to answer that question in Gambardella, and no one is certain where he is, or if he is even still alive! 

Next Week: The Parkside Body in the Freezer Case: Incompetent Coroner? (part 4)

(Bibliography in the final blog post of this series)
 

The Parkside Body in the Freezer Case: Innocence (part 2)


The Parkside Body in the Freezer Case: Innocence (part 2)

David Szach’s was sent to jail at the age of 19, for the murder of his 44-year-old  lover, flamboyant lawyer, Derrance Stevenson, in 1979.
Szach’s has always maintained his innocence in the case, launching numerous appeals to clear his name, and even appearing on channel seven current affairs program, Today Tonight, undertaking a polygraph test (https://www.todaytonightadelaide.com.au/stories/szach-polygraph). (you can read a transcript of the interview here: http://netk.net.au/Media/2007-03-12TTSzach.asp
David Szach – circa 1980 – source Today Tonight
It is claimed that Mr Derrance Redford Stevenson was killed on the night of Monday June 4th 1979. A concerned friend had visited his home at 189 Greenhill Rd, Parkside after Mr Stevenson failed to appear at an important trail at the courthouse on Tuesday morning. Police searched the building, fearing Mr Stevenson had been robbed for the large amounts of cash his friends claimed he kept on the premises, it was during this time the freezer was found glued shut, and once opened, Mr Stevenson’s body found.
 Mr Stevenson, was last seen alive about 4.25pm on June 4 by his relieving secretary, Mrs Flaherty.

 The coroner arrived at 6pm Tuesday night to begin examinations of Mr Stevenson’s body, which had spent the night in a sealed freezer. He estimated the time of death, which corresponded to a time that Mr Szach’s would have been present in the home (more about this next week), further pointing the finger towards Mr Szach’s.

Szach had allegedly cancelled a bus ticket to Coober Pedy on Monday the 4th. He often went to the town to mine opal. It is claimed that Szach’s took Mr Stevenson’s distinct red 240z Datsun, and drove to his parents’ house, then drove it to Coober Pedy. What is significant about this, is that it is claimed that Stevenson was very particular about who drove his car and where it went. It is claimed he would never have let his 19-year-old lover drive the car.
 To further implicate Szach’s a witness claimed he saw a man leaving Stevenson’s home after 11pm carrying a green garbage bag and an attaché case. The attaché case (or one very similar to it) was found inside Stevenson’s red Datsun in Coober Pedy…

David Szach’s pleaded not guilty in court, but was sentenced (via jury) to life in jail. He appealed and was re-tried in 1980, only to lose again.
Szach’s refused to apply for parole, as he believed he was innocent, and applying for parole against his sentence, would give recognition that he had committed the crime.
 South Australian laws were changed to enable the Chair of the Parole Board to apply for a non-parole period on the behalf of a prisoner because of the Szach’s stance.
Szach’s was released in 1994
So, did David Szach’s kill his older lover? Dr Bob Moles of the Miscarriages of Justice Project at Flinders’ University doesn’t believe so, and has campaigned against the conviction of Mr Szach’s and Governments further refusal to allows Szach’s to appeal against his conviction.
Dr Moles publicly stated that Szach’s couldn’t have killed Stevenson in an interview with ABC news reporters, Damien Carrick and Jeremy Story Carter, where he stated;

“You’d have to attribute to David Szach a number of skills,”

“He’d have the skills of a hired assassin. He’d have to have the skills of a highly skilled rally driver. He’d have
to have the skills of a person who could impersonate somebody else and he’d also have to have a great capacity to come across as innocent and naïve when he’s been questioned by the police.”

There is further evidence either overlooked or “pushed aside” by prosecutors. On the night of Stevenson’s death, two cars were seen sitting in the driveway at his house. One for the green and white ford belonging to Gino Gambardella, and the other unknown (with the witness suggesting it could be the red Datsun that belonged to Stevenson). These cars were witnessed at about 11pm on the night of the murder.

A taxi also picked up a young man, wearing a suit, who was carrying a garbage bag and an attaché case, and drove him into the City. The young man, when he exited the taxi, forget his belongings, and was called back by the taxi driver to take them with him.
The taxi driver described the young man as being around 19 years old with blond shoulder length hair, wearing glasses and of a sallow complexion. He (The taxi driver) did not believe this man to be Szach’s.

A mysterious young man who showed up on the steps of the South Australian Legal Aid Commission the morning after Stevenson’s murder wanting to report a crime. When asked by a legal secretary if he had seen a lawyer, the man replied: “Only Derrance Stevenson, but when I left him last night he was in no condition to act for anyone.”

David Szach – circa 2012 – source ABC News


 This young man was never heard of again, and no-one tried to follow up on his request. Who was he? Was he the young man in the suit?

Szach’s also claimed that Stevenson’s had been receiving threatening phone calls, and after one phone call, had told him to take the Datsun and leave town for a while. Szach’s followed his partner’s advice, spending a day with his mother, and returning home that night, to find Stevenson not home, so he took the car and drove overnight to Coober Pedy. Szach’s never once deterred from this story.

At the time of the trial, it was illegal to be homosexual in Adelaide. The prosecution sensationalised the case in the media by focussing as much attention on the two men’s sex lives as they could, taking the spotlight away from facts, witness testimony and other unanswered questions about the case at the time.
There are many intriguing unanswered questions with this case, including a scandal around the then Coroner. There is also the question of who is Gino Gambardella and what was he doing at Stevenson’s house on the night of the murder?

I will be looking at both these men in coming blogs.

Do you believe David Szach’s is guilty or innocent of the murder of Derrance Stevenson? Tell us over on our facebook page; The Haunts of Adelaide (https://www.facebook.com/TheHauntsOfAdelaide/?fref=ts)


Next Week: The Parkside Body in the Freezer Case: Gino “Luigi” Gambardella (part 3)
(Bibliography in the final blog post of this series)
 

The Parkside Body in the Freezer Case: Innocence (part 2)


The Parkside Body in the Freezer Case: Innocence (part 2)

David Szach’s was sent to jail at the age of 19, for the murder of his 44-year-old  lover, flamboyant lawyer, Derrance Stevenson, in 1979.
Szach’s has always maintained his innocence in the case, launching numerous appeals to clear his name, and even appearing on channel seven current affairs program, Today Tonight, undertaking a polygraph test (https://www.todaytonightadelaide.com.au/stories/szach-polygraph). (you can read a transcript of the interview here: http://netk.net.au/Media/2007-03-12TTSzach.asp
David Szach – circa 1980 – source Today Tonight
It is claimed that Mr Derrance Redford Stevenson was killed on the night of Monday June 4th 1979. A concerned friend had visited his home at 189 Greenhill Rd, Parkside after Mr Stevenson failed to appear at an important trail at the courthouse on Tuesday morning. Police searched the building, fearing Mr Stevenson had been robbed for the large amounts of cash his friends claimed he kept on the premises, it was during this time the freezer was found glued shut, and once opened, Mr Stevenson’s body found.
 Mr Stevenson, was last seen alive about 4.25pm on June 4 by his relieving secretary, Mrs Flaherty.

 The coroner arrived at 6pm Tuesday night to begin examinations of Mr Stevenson’s body, which had spent the night in a sealed freezer. He estimated the time of death, which corresponded to a time that Mr Szach’s would have been present in the home (more about this next week), further pointing the finger towards Mr Szach’s.

Szach had allegedly cancelled a bus ticket to Coober Pedy on Monday the 4th. He often went to the town to mine opal. It is claimed that Szach’s took Mr Stevenson’s distinct red 240z Datsun, and drove to his parents’ house, then drove it to Coober Pedy. What is significant about this, is that it is claimed that Stevenson was very particular about who drove his car and where it went. It is claimed he would never have let his 19-year-old lover drive the car.
 To further implicate Szach’s a witness claimed he saw a man leaving Stevenson’s home after 11pm carrying a green garbage bag and an attaché case. The attaché case (or one very similar to it) was found inside Stevenson’s red Datsun in Coober Pedy…

David Szach’s pleaded not guilty in court, but was sentenced (via jury) to life in jail. He appealed and was re-tried in 1980, only to lose again.
Szach’s refused to apply for parole, as he believed he was innocent, and applying for parole against his sentence, would give recognition that he had committed the crime.
 South Australian laws were changed to enable the Chair of the Parole Board to apply for a non-parole period on the behalf of a prisoner because of the Szach’s stance.
Szach’s was released in 1994
So, did David Szach’s kill his older lover? Dr Bob Moles of the Miscarriages of Justice Project at Flinders’ University doesn’t believe so, and has campaigned against the conviction of Mr Szach’s and Governments further refusal to allows Szach’s to appeal against his conviction.
Dr Moles publicly stated that Szach’s couldn’t have killed Stevenson in an interview with ABC news reporters, Damien Carrick and Jeremy Story Carter, where he stated;

“You’d have to attribute to David Szach a number of skills,”

“He’d have the skills of a hired assassin. He’d have to have the skills of a highly skilled rally driver. He’d have to have the skills of a person who could impersonate somebody else and he’d also have to have a great capacity to come across as innocent and naïve when he’s been questioned by the police.”

There is further evidence either overlooked or “pushed aside” by prosecutors. On the night of Stevenson’s death, two cars were seen sitting in the driveway at his house. One for the green and white ford belonging to Gino Gambardella, and the other unknown (with the witness suggesting it could be the red Datsun that belonged to Stevenson). These cars were witnessed at about 11pm on the night of the murder.

A taxi also picked up a young man, wearing a suit, who was carrying a garbage bag and an attaché case, and drove him into the City. The young man, when he exited the taxi, forget his belongings, and was called back by the taxi driver to take them with him.
The taxi driver described the young man as being around 19 years old with blond shoulder length hair, wearing glasses and of a sallow complexion. He (The taxi driver) did not believe this man to be Szach’s.

A mysterious young man who showed up on the steps of the South Australian Legal Aid Commission the morning after Stevenson’s murder wanting to report a crime. When asked by a legal secretary if he had seen a lawyer, the man replied: “Only Derrance Stevenson, but when I left him last night he was in no condition to act for anyone.”

David Szach – circa 2012 – source ABC News


 This young man was never heard of again, and no-one tried to follow up on his request. Who was he? Was he the young man in the suit?

Szach’s also claimed that Stevenson’s had been receiving threatening phone calls, and after one phone call, had told him to take the Datsun and leave town for a while. Szach’s followed his partner’s advice, spending a day with his mother, and returning home that night, to find Stevenson not home, so he took the car and drove overnight to Coober Pedy. Szach’s never once deterred from this story.

At the time of the trial, it was illegal to be homosexual in Adelaide. The prosecution sensationalised the case in the media by focussing as much attention on the two men’s sex lives as they could, taking the spotlight away from facts, witness testimony and other unanswered questions about the case at the time.
There are many intriguing unanswered questions with this case, including a scandal around the then Coroner. There is also the question of who is Gino Gambardella and what was he doing at Stevenson’s house on the night of the murder?

I will be looking at both these men in coming blogs.

Do you believe David Szach’s is guilty or innocent of the murder of Derrance Stevenson? Tell us over on our facebook page; The Haunts of Adelaide (https://www.facebook.com/TheHauntsOfAdelaide/?fref=ts)


Next Week: The Parkside Body in the Freezer Case: Gino “Luigi” Gambardella (part 3)
(Bibliography in the final blog post of this series)
 

 The Parkside Body in the Freezer Case: Death (part 1)


The Parkside Body in the Freezer Case: Death (part 1)

In July 1979, well known Adelaide lawyer, Mr Derrance Stevenson was found dead in his own freezer. He was dressed in a shirt, underpants and socks, his head and body wrapped in two plastic garbage bags, with a .22 calibre rifle wound to the back of his head.
The lid of the freezer had been glued shut.
Thus, began a murder case that had links to Bevan Spencer Von Einem, The Family Murders, Adelaide’s gay scene, allegations of police corruption and cover-ups, and the jailing of a possibly innocent young man, who to this day, almost 40 years later, still proclaims his innocence!
Flamboyant Adelaide Lawyer
Derrance Stevenson (circa 1978)
Derrance Stevenson was a flamboyant Adelaide lawyer who loved to represent clients in weird and unusual cases. He was also well known in Adelaide’s gay scene in the late 1970’s, and often had lovers much younger than himself visit his home, including teenagers.
In 1976, the 41-year-old Stevenson began to have a sexual relationship with 16-year-old David Szach, a young man procured at the age of 16 for him by friend and associate, Mr Gino “Luigi” Gambardella. Their sexual relationship was not monogamous,

 “There were times that he wouldn’t want me to be there, so I rang beforehand and that was usually on a Friday or so,” Szach said in an interview on ABC Radio in 2016 (Carrick, 2016)

 “I just accepted the fact that given his position and my circumstances that he still valued me on that basis”

“I never had really a relationship as such with my father. I think this is just one of those things that, you’re a young teenager, someone expresses an interest and values [you], and it’s something that you become or feel comfortable in becoming.”

Notorious sex-murderer:
Bevan Spencer Von Einem
Stevenson had been part of a secret group that procured young men for sex, usually by offering illegal drugs. The group also made sex tapes which they allegedly sold in black-market groups. It is also alleged that Stevenson may have taken part, or been offered a role, in several “snuff” movies. 

 It is alleged that Stevenson wanted to leave the group in 1979 – and this led to his murder.

Interestingly, Stevenson had represented an “unnamed witness” at the inquest of Dr George Duncan ( The Duncan Affair – http://hauntedadelaide.blogspot.com.au/2014/05/the-duncan-affair.html) a gay man who was thrown into the Torrens river and drowned. (Bevan Spencer Von Einem had been a witness to the murder of Dr Duncan, again tying him and the family to Stevenson).

Police stated that any connection with ‘The Family’ was complete speculation.
David Szach was arrested for the murder of his older lover Derrance Stevenson the following day. He had driven Stevenson’s much loved red Datsun 260z sports car to Coober Pedy, where he was arrested by Police, the day after Stevenson’s body had been discovered.
Next Week: The Parkside Body in the Freezer Case: Innocence (part 2)

(Bibliography in the final blog post of this series)

 The Parkside Body in the Freezer Case: Death (part 1)


The Parkside Body in the Freezer Case: Death (part 1)

In July 1979, well known Adelaide lawyer, Mr Derrance Stevenson was found dead in his own freezer. He was dressed in a shirt, underpants and socks, his head and body wrapped in two plastic garbage bags, with a .22 calibre rifle wound to the back of his head.
The lid of the freezer had been glued shut.
Thus, began a murder case that had links to Bevan Spencer Von Einem, The Family Murders, Adelaide’s gay scene, allegations of police corruption and cover-ups, and the jailing of a possibly innocent young man, who to this day, almost 40 years later, still proclaims his innocence!
Flamboyant Adelaide Lawyer
Derrance Stevenson (circa 1978)
Derrance Stevenson was a flamboyant Adelaide lawyer who loved to represent clients in weird and unusual cases. He was also well known in Adelaide’s gay scene in the late 1970’s, and often had lovers much younger than himself visit his home, including teenagers.
In 1976, the 41-year-old Stevenson began to have a sexual relationship with 16-year-old David Szach, a young man procured at the age of 16 for him by friend and associate, Mr Gino “Luigi” Gambardella. Their sexual relationship was not monogamous,

 “There were times that he wouldn’t want me to be there, so I rang beforehand and that was usually on a Friday or so,” Szach said in an interview on ABC Radio in 2016 (Carrick, 2016)

 “I just accepted the fact that given his position and my circumstances that he still valued me on that basis”

“I never had really a relationship as such with my father. I think this is just one of those things that, you’re a young teenager, someone expresses an interest and values [you], and it’s something that you become or feel comfortable in becoming.”

Notorious sex-murderer:
Bevan Spencer Von Einem
Stevenson had been part of a secret group that procured young men for sex, usually by offering illegal drugs. The group also made sex tapes which they allegedly sold in black-market groups. It is also alleged that Stevenson may have taken part, or been offered a role, in several “snuff” movies. 

 It is alleged that Stevenson wanted to leave the group in 1979 – and this led to his murder.

Interestingly, Stevenson had represented an “unnamed witness” at the inquest of Dr George Duncan ( The Duncan Affair – http://hauntedadelaide.blogspot.com.au/2014/05/the-duncan-affair.html) a gay man who was thrown into the Torrens river and drowned. (Bevan Spencer Von Einem had been a witness to the murder of Dr Duncan, again tying him and the family to Stevenson).

Police stated that any connection with ‘The Family’ was complete speculation.
David Szach was arrested for the murder of his older lover Derrance Stevenson the following day. He had driven Stevenson’s much loved red Datsun 260z sports car to Coober Pedy, where he was arrested by Police, the day after Stevenson’s body had been discovered.
Next Week: The Parkside Body in the Freezer Case: Innocence (part 2)

(Bibliography in the final blog post of this series)

Port Adelaide: The Ghost of Lee Pao Sung



In October 1944 Mr Lee Pao Sung was found floating in the Port River, he was wrapped in a red blanket with a hessian bag over his head. Upon removing the bag, police found two 3-inch nails, driven into Mr Sung’s skull.
 His body was badly beaten, and around his neck, a coil of cord had been tied.

Mr Sung and another Chinese sailor, Mr Wu Su-ling, had “jumped ship” in September 1944, and had been reported missing.
 The only clue the Police had to identify Mr Sung’s killer was the expertly coil of cord, which detectives believed only a seasoned sailor could tie in such a way.
An autopsy revealed that the nails had been driven Into Lee’s head after his death. Tied to his body was a small, oblong piece of bone.
The cord around his throat was coiled twice, knotted, coiled another four times, and tied in a reef-knot.
Lee Pao Sun – source : Truth (Brisbane newspaper 1944)
 Two Chinese Seamen, Mr Wu Su-ling (the ships Engineer, from Tientsin in northern China) and Mr Low Yung-fui (Captains’ Boy, from Hong Kong) were reported for the crime.
In 1944 Port Adelaide homicide detectives became the first in Australia to extradite the two suspects for the murder of Lee Pao Sung. Both men, who worked as sailors had left South Australia, with one moving to Newcastle in New South Wales, and the other to Sri Lanka (known as Ceylon in 1944).
During an interview with Detective Sergeant Gill, Wu Su-ling pointed the finger at Low Yung-fui. He claimed that Lee Pao Sung had threatened Low Yun-fui with a knife, and he had killed him in retaliation.
 When Low Yun-fui was told this story, he denied it, and then said it was the other way around, Wu Su-ling had committed the murder and that he, Low, had helped dispose of the body into the Port River.
“I did not; it was the other way round. Low killed him and forced me to help. When I woke up at 3.30am he was in my cabin, and the body was there. He threatened to put me in trouble if I called out.” Low stated.
Low also claimed he had seen three nails in Wu’s possession and heard him say he was going to kill Lee Pao Sung.

After intense interrogation, and the dismal of Low’s claims, both men were eventually cleared of any wrong doing.
The death of Lee Pao Sung took an interesting twist when it was revealed in The Advocate (a Tasmanian newspaper) that the three nails in a triangular pattern had been seen before in other murders in China.
It is believed the pattern was a sign from a secret Chinese political party who used an equilateral triangle as their secret symbol.
Lee Pao Sung was buried in the Cheltenham Cemetery on Friday the 6th of October 1944. His funeral was presided over by the Rev H. C, Cuthbertson, chaplain of the Port Adelaide Mission to Seamen.
His funeral rites were provided as to those pertaining to the Church of England (Mr Sung’s actual religion was unknown).
 His funeral was attended by Detective L Bond and by Mr M McLennan, a representative of the Melbourne Steamship Co.
The Melbourne Steamship Co also paid for Mr Sung’s funeral expenses.
Since 1944 many people have claimed to see the spirit of the Chinese Sailor Lee Pao Sung at Port Adelaide. Sometimes he is seen near the Birkenhead Bridge, and other times walking along the pier near the lighthouse. Descriptions of a Chinese man roaming the pier, sounding in pain have been numerous in recent years.
Weirdly, the reported sightings do not have Mr Lee with a bag over his head, rather they report a sailor style of clothing, and a neat appearance.
Have you experienced the ghost of Lee Pau Sung at Port Adelaide? Let us know over on facebook at The Haunts of Adelaide
If you are interested in learning more about Hauntings in Port Adelaide, and doing a free tour, please visit Ghosts of the Port – Self guided walking tour – written by our own Allen Tiller for the Port Adelaide E
nfield Council – find it here: https://www.portenf.sa.gov.au/page.aspx?c=51325
Or on facebook here:
 

Bibliography
Williamson B, 2015, Port Adelaide’s policing history reveals gruesome and groundbreaking past, ABC Radio Adelaide, viewed 1 Aug 2016, http://www.abc.net.au/news/2015-05-26/port-adelaide-policing-history-reveals-gruesome-past/6495578
1944 ‘CHINESE SEAMEN CHARGED WITH SHIPMATE’S MURDER’, The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 – 1957), 21 December, p. 4. , viewed 01 Aug 2017, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article11375795
1944 ‘Victim Of Murder Buried’, News (Adelaide, SA : 1923 – 1954), 6 October, p. 3. , viewed 12 July 2015, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article129877030
1944 ‘Brutal Murder Of Chinese’, The Mercury (Hobart, Tas. : 1860 – 1954), 5 October, p. 5. , viewed 01 Aug 2016, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article26042054
1944 ‘MURDER OF CHINESE SEAMAN’, The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 – 1954), 13 October, p. 4. , viewed 12 Dec 2013, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article17924067
1944 ‘Murder Charge’, Maryborough Chronicle, Wide Bay and Burnett Advertiser (Qld. : 1860 – 1947), 14 October, p. 5. , 12 Dec 2013, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article151403550
1944 ‘Possible Victim of Secret Society’, Advocate (Burnie, Tas. : 1890 – 1954), 7 October, p. 3. (DAILY), viewed 12 Dec 2013, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article91744640
1944 ‘”Nail” Murder’s Accessory ?’, The Daily News (Perth, WA : 1882 – 1950), 7 December, p. 6. (CITY FINAL), viewed 07 Mar 2017, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article78761197
1944 ‘Tong Theory In Murder Of Chinese’, The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 – 1954), 4 October, p. 3. (LATE FINAL EXTRA), viewed 07 Mar 2017, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article229271221
1945 ‘Two Chinese For Trial For Murder RIVER FIND’, Truth (Brisbane, Qld. : 1900 – 1954), 7 January, p. 18. , viewed 07 Mar 2017, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article203756833
1944 ‘BIZARRE THEORY IN CHINESE MURDER’, Truth (Brisbane, Qld. : 1900 – 1954), 8 October, p. 19. , viewed 07 Mar 2017, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article203757634

Port Adelaide: The Ghost of Lee Pao Sung



In October 1944 Mr Lee Pao Sung was found floating in the Port River, he was wrapped in a red blanket with a hessian bag over his head. Upon removing the bag, police found two 3-inch nails, driven into Mr Sung’s skull.
 His body was badly beaten, and around his neck, a coil of cord had been tied.

Mr Sung and another Chinese sailor, Mr Wu Su-ling, had “jumped ship” in September 1944, and had been reported missing.
 The only clue the Police had to identify Mr Sung’s killer was the expertly coil of cord, which detectives believed only a seasoned sailor could tie in such a way.
An autopsy revealed that the nails had been driven Into Lee’s head after his death. Tied to his body was a small, oblong piece of bone.
The cord around his throat was coiled twice, knotted, coiled another four times, and tied in a reef-knot.
Lee Pao Sun – source : Truth (Brisbane newspaper 1944)
 Two Chinese Seamen, Mr Wu Su-ling (the ships Engineer, from Tientsin in northern China) and Mr Low Yung-fui (Captains’ Boy, from Hong Kong) were reported for the crime.
In 1944 Port Adelaide homicide detectives became the first in Australia to extradite the two suspects for the murder of Lee Pao Sung. Both men, who worked as sailors had left South Australia, with one moving to Newcastle in New South Wales, and the other to Sri Lanka (known as Ceylon in 1944).
During an interview with Detective Sergeant Gill, Wu Su-ling pointed the finger at Low Yung-fui. He claimed that Lee Pao Sung had threatened Low Yun-fui with a knife, and he had killed him in retaliation.
 When Low Yun-fui was told this story, he denied it, and then said it was the other way around, Wu Su-ling had committed the murder and that he, Low, had helped dispose of the body into the Port River.
“I did not; it was the other way round. Low killed him and forced me to help. When I woke up at 3.30am he was in my cabin, and the body was there. He threatened to put me in trouble if I called out.” Low stated.
Low also claimed he had seen three nails in Wu’s possession and heard him say he was going to kill Lee Pao Sung.

After intense interrogation, and the dismal of Low’s claims, both men were eventually cleared of any wrong doing.
The death of Lee Pao Sung took an interesting twist when it was revealed in The Advocate (a Tasmanian newspaper) that the three nails in a triangular pattern had been seen before in other murders in China.
It is believed the pattern was a sign from a secret Chinese political party who used an equilateral triangle as their secret symbol.
Lee Pao Sung was buried in the Cheltenham Cemetery on Friday the 6th of October 1944. His funeral was presided over by the Rev H. C, Cuthbertson, chaplain of the Port Adelaide Mission to Seamen.
His funeral rites were provided as to those pertaining to the Church of England (Mr Sung’s actual religion was unknown).
 His funeral was attended by Detective L Bond and by Mr M McLennan, a representative of the Melbourne Steamship Co.
The Melbourne Steamship Co also paid for Mr Sung’s funeral expenses.
Since 1944 many people have claimed to see the spirit of the Chinese Sailor Lee Pao Sung at Port Adelaide. Sometimes he is seen near the Birkenhead Bridge, and other times walking along the pier near the lighthouse. Descriptions of a Chinese man roaming the pier, sounding in pain have been numerous in recent years.
Weirdly, the reported sightings do not have Mr Lee with a bag over his head, rather they report a sailor style of clothing, and a neat appearance.
Have you experienced the ghost of Lee Pau Sung at Port Adelaide? Let us know over on facebook at The Haunts of Adelaide
If you are interested in learning more about Hauntings in Port Adelaide, and doing a free tour, please visit Ghosts of the Port – Self guided walking tour – written by our own Allen Tiller for the Port Adelaide Enfield Council – find it here: https://www.portenf.sa.gov.au/page.aspx?c=51325
Or on facebook here:
 

Bibliography
Williamson B, 2015, Port Adelaide’s policing history reveals gruesome and groundbreaking past, ABC Radio Adelaide, viewed 1 Aug 2016, http://www.abc.net.au/news/2015-05-26/port-adelaide-policing-history-reveals-gruesome-past/6495578
1944 ‘CHINESE SEAMEN CHARGED WITH SHIPMATE’S MURDER’, The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 – 1957), 21 December, p. 4. , viewed 01 Aug 2017, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article11375795
1944 ‘Victim Of Murder Buried’, News (Adelaide, SA : 1923 – 1954), 6 October, p. 3. , viewed 12 July 2015, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article129877030
1944 ‘Brutal Murder Of Chinese’, The Mercury (Hobart, Tas. : 1860 – 1954), 5 October, p. 5. , viewed 01 Aug 2016, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article26042054
1944 ‘MURDER OF CHINESE SEAMAN’, The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 – 1954), 13 October, p. 4. , viewed 12 Dec 2013, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article17924067
1944 ‘Murder Charge’, Maryborough Chronicle, Wide Bay and Burnett Advertiser (Qld. : 1860 – 1947), 14 October, p. 5. , 12 Dec 2013, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article151403550
1944 ‘Possible Victim of Secret Society’, Advocate (Burnie, Tas. : 1890 – 1954), 7 October, p. 3. (DAILY), viewed 12 Dec 2013, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article91744640
1944 ‘”Nail” Murder’s Accessory ?’, The Daily News (Perth, WA : 1882 – 1950), 7 December, p. 6. (CITY FINAL), viewed 07 Mar 2017, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article78761197
1944 ‘Tong Theory In Murder Of Chinese’, The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 – 1954), 4 October, p. 3. (LATE FINAL EXTRA), viewed 07 Mar 2017, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article229271221
1945 ‘Two Chinese For Trial For Murder RIVER FIND’, Truth (Brisbane, Qld. : 1900 – 1954), 7 January, p. 18. , viewed 07 Mar 2017, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article203756833
1944 ‘BIZARRE THEORY IN CHINESE MURDER’, Truth (Brisbane, Qld. : 1900 – 1954), 8 October, p. 19. , viewed 07 Mar 2017, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article203757634